So here is a touchy subject so I feel the need to preface this by saying I am not saying those who do or do not neuter/spay their dogs are right or wrong. I am simply putting my own opinion out there and giving information I have learned over the years which has influenced this opinion. I encourage everyone to do what is responsible and inform themselves before making any medical choice for their pets and to get opinions from your vet (and even multiple vets). Go over information and get in touch with many people to see their thoughts on your options.
Here is my opinion. We neuter and spay our animals as an easy escape of responsibility. There are many people who have intact animals (those who retain their hormones and sexual organs) who have never bred them and who do not plan on breeding. There is nothing wrong with these people and they are not being “irresponsible” by not spaying or neutering. Some could say that in fact they are being more responsible because their dogs have the capability of breeding but do not, meaning their owners have to enact more control and conscious supervision over their animals.
Firstly, it is standard to spay and neuter dogs very early in their lives and by doing so we open them up to countless problems which they will have to face for the rest of their lives. In neutered males alone they are 3 times more likely to be plagued with obesity. In spayed females they are 2 times as likely to be obese. Likelihood of your neutered pet developing Hip Dysplasia, Hemangiosarcoma (a very deadly form of cancer), Hypothyroidism, Geriatric Cognitive Impairment (a type of dementia for pets), Ligament Rupture, and Osteosarcoma (bone cancer) are all increased, particularly when the neutering is done before they have fully developed physically and mentally. Likelihood of your spayed pet developing all of these problems as well as Urinary Incontinence, Dermatitis, Vaginal Infections, or Urinary Tract Infections are also increased, again especially when the spaying is done before they have fully developed.
Secondly, if you wanted to remove the possibility of your dog impregnating another, or becoming pregnant themselves, there are alternatives which allow them to keep their sexual hormones which not only affect their behavior, but assist in their development. Imagine a human child who had their sexual hormones removed before puberty and before they’d developed physically and mentally. They would not be a “normal” adult human. Why are we content with animals being trapped in an eternal prepubescent state? These alternatives are many but two common ones are not abnormal to us. They are tubal ligation’s (having ones “tubes tied”) for females and vasectomy’s for males. These remove the possibility of breeding from the dogs, yet allows them to retain their hormones, thus allowing them to develop naturally and not have the high likelihood of diseases and problems which are known to be tied to having these hormones removed.
There are some who look at these facts who still state that the “risks” associated do not outweigh the benefits of neutering, but I would be quick to state that since one of the biggest benefits is to you and not your dog (the fact that they now cannot possibly be bred) that it should not be included in any sort of pro/con situation. Rather, simply looking at the health benefits versus the health risks, and also factoring in that this is an optional unnecessary procedure which includes anesthesia which is always a risk, one must very carefully determine what they are to do.
Personally, this is the main reason why I will not adopt a dog from a standard shelter. Many refuse to release a dog, regardless of age, to anyone before they are spayed or neutered. This means that even puppies as young as 8 wks are neutered or spayed. Instead I will work with a responsible breeder who understands my fears associated with this procedure and who is willing and happy to allow me to keep a dog under an alternative to spay/neuter if not completely intact.